The cause is unknown. Acoustic neuromas can be sporadic or caused by an inherited condition called neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF-2), also known as von Recklinghausen’s disease.
Acoustic neuromas have a 5 percent association with NF-2, a rare disease characterized by multiple tumors in various sites, especially the skin, which can cause bilateral acoustic tumors. Fifty percent of people with NF-2 have a family history of the condition, while 50 percent do not. The children of an individual with NF-2 will have a 50 percent chance of inheriting the condition.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), an arm of the World Health Organization, concluded in June 2011 that there appeared to be a positive association between wireless telephones and acoustic neuroma. However, a cause and effect relationship has not been proven.